Flat feet occur when the arches of your feet lose their curve and fall level to the ground. There are some instances where you might need to look for custom orthotics for children with flat feet. The most obvious sign of flat feet is an arch that makes contact with the ground when standing. Diabetic people may have achy and weak muscles in the thighs and feet. Sprain: When the fibers of the tissue tear due to overstretched ligaments, a sprain occurs, and a sprain is known to cause extreme pain. Muscle Injury: Overloading, overuse, over-stretching, or bruising of the muscles and tendons of the foot may lead to severe pain in the foot. Inflammation in the posterior tibial tendon causes pain that goes from your foot up your lower leg along the tendon. The pain in the tendon might change your gait -the way you walk. This puts more strain on other parts of your leg, including your hip and knee, which can lead to pain in those areas. Most doctors start with conservative treatment to heal a damaged posterior tibial tendon, using rest, ice, compression, elevation and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications to reduce swelling and inflammation and allow the tendon to repair itself. Custom orthotics that fit in your shoe can help correct your gait by mechanically holding up your foot in a normal arch pattern. The foot can bend as the heel lifts of the ground. This creates stress on the surrounding soft-tissues and joints creating tired, sore arches. The instability of the foot can create abnormal stress that flows up the leg which results in pain in the legs, knees, hips and lower back. Supportive devices are often placed in your shoes early in the treatment course to help favorably position your foot arch and alleviate both your symptoms and the progression of your condition. Stretching exercises for your Achilles tendon and calf muscles are a conservative treatment technique that may help improve flexibility in the back of your lower leg. Because dropping the back of your heel will increase the stretch on these structures, the effectiveness of your stretching program may be negated if you wear shoes that possess heel elevation, or a heel that is higher than your forefoot. Consider slowly and progressively lowering the back of your heel to help your posterior lower leg structures adjust. If your a little more skilled with tape and want to try this technique, it may be helpful for some athletes who have flat feet or pain in their arches. Their theoretical purpose is to help muscles of the foot give good feedback information to the brain about the muscles/joints, and also possibly assist with other localized tissue effects. This is by no means an exhaustive list of the ways to help flat feel, foot pain, or to deal with injuries. Journal of Foot & Ankle Surg 2011; 50: 311 - 314. Although flatfoot is common and usually painless in babies and young children, it can cause cramps and pain in the arch or heel in older children and teenagers. Children with Diabetic Foot may walk awkwardly and may have difficulty finding comfortable shoes to wear. Flexible flatfoot occurs when the foot remains supple and the Achilles tendon isn't tight. Although the arch looks flat when your child stands normally, an arch is visible when your child stands on her toes. If your child has rigid flatfoot, the arch remains flat despite changing the position of the foot. Children who have a flat foot with tight heel cord can't bend the foot at the ankle more than 15 degrees. Rebuild your arches with simple exercises such as toe curls. However, if you do not need to perform at your maximum and can afford to give your feet rest; you could initially try pain killers paired with suitable footwear. Fallen arches in children ought to be investigated as soon as possible in order to ensure a problem free adulthood and avoid possible complications. Bone disorders, infections and anything that affects foot muscles are the most common causes.